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Elisabeth I., englisch Elizabeth I, eigentlich Elizabeth Tudor, auch bekannt unter den Namen The Virgin Queen, The Maiden Queen, Gloriana oder Good Queen Bess, war vom November bis an ihr Lebensende Königin von England. Elisabeth I., englisch Elizabeth I, eigentlich Elizabeth Tudor, auch bekannt unter den Namen The Virgin Queen, The Maiden Queen („Die jungfräuliche Königin“),. Elisabeth I. von England () - Die größte Politikerin des Elisabeth I. (Abb. 80), eine der bedeutendsten Herrscherinnen der europäischen Weltgeschichte, wurde als Arnold, Janet: Queen Elizabeth´s Wardrobe unlock´ed. Elizabeth I (Penguin Monarchs): A Study in Insecurity | Castor, Helen | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf. Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland c Version of the Armada portrait attributed Circa Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England Reign .
Robert Dudley, Königin Elizabeth I. Kaum auf dem Thron, ernannte Elizabeth Robert zu ihrem Oberstallmeister, richtete sein Quartier in. Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland c Version of the Armada portrait attributed Circa Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England Reign . Elizabeth I. - Königin von England - Imke Barfknecht - Seminararbeit - Geschichte Europa - and. Länder - Mittelalter, Frühe Neuzeit - Arbeiten publizieren.
While it has become normative to record the death of the Queen as occurring in , following English calendar reform in the s, at the time England observed New Year's Day on 25 March, commonly known as Lady Day.
Thus Elizabeth died on the last day of the year in the old calendar. The modern convention is to use the old calendar for the date and month while using the new for the year.
Elizabeth's coffin was carried downriver at night to Whitehall , on a barge lit with torches. At her funeral on 28 April, the coffin was taken to Westminster Abbey on a hearse drawn by four horses hung with black velvet.
In the words of the chronicler John Stow :. Westminster was surcharged with multitudes of all sorts of people in their streets, houses, windows, leads and gutters, that came out to see the obsequy , and when they beheld her statue lying upon the coffin, there was such a general sighing, groaning and weeping as the like hath not been seen or known in the memory of man.
Elizabeth was interred in Westminster Abbey, in a tomb shared with her half-sister, Mary I.
Elizabeth was lamented by many of her subjects, but others were relieved at her death. James was depicted as a Catholic sympathiser, presiding over a corrupt court.
Godfrey Goodman , Bishop of Gloucester, recalled: "When we had experience of a Scottish government, the Queen did seem to revive.
Then was her memory much magnified. The picture of Elizabeth painted by her Protestant admirers of the early 17th century has proved lasting and influential.
Neale and A. Rowse , interpreted Elizabeth's reign as a golden age of progress. Recent historians, however, have taken a more complicated view of Elizabeth.
She offered very limited aid to foreign Protestants and failed to provide her commanders with the funds to make a difference abroad.
Elizabeth established an English church that helped shape a national identity and remains in place today. Though Elizabeth followed a largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised England's status abroad.
Some historians have called her lucky;  she believed that God was protecting her. The love of my people hath appeared firm, and the devices of my enemies frustrate.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Elizabeth I of England. Queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November until 24 March For other uses and people with similar names, see Elizabeth I disambiguation , Elizabeth of England disambiguation and Elizabeth Tudor disambiguation.
Queen of England and Ireland. The "Darnley Portrait" of Elizabeth I c. Westminster Abbey. Main article: Elizabethan Religious Settlement.
Main article: Tudor conquest of Ireland. Further information: Cultural depictions of Elizabeth I of England. Biography portal England portal.
Loades, Chetham Society. Somerset, University of Chicago Chronicle. Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 22 March Encyclopedia Britannica.
Retrieved 22 January Loades 24— Robert Poole 6 September Institute of Historical Research.
Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 26 October Literature Compass. Retrieved 23 August This Sceptred Isle — Black, Most modern historians have considered murder unlikely; breast cancer and suicide being the most widely accepted explanations Doran, Monarchy , The coroner 's report, hitherto believed lost, came to light in The National Archives in the late s and is compatible with a downstairs fall as well as other violence Skidmore, — Renaissance Quarterly.
The Historical Journal. Haigh, May subscription required. Retrieved 3 April Wilson castigates Elizabeth for half-heartedness in the war against Spain.
Madrid, p. Elliott La Europa dividida — Editorial Critica, Performing Blackness on English Stages, — Cambridge University Press.
Shakespeare Survey With Index 1— Speaking of the Moor. University of Pennsylvania Press. Retrieved 2 May United States History Fourth ed.
London: A. For a detailed account of such criticisms and of Elizabeth's "government by illusion", see chapter 8, "The Queen and the People", Haigh, — Costly wars against Spain and the Irish, involvement in the Netherlands, socio-economic distress, and an authoritarian turn by the regime all cast a pall over Gloriana's final years, underpinning a weariness with the queen's rule and open criticism of her government and its failures.
Reviews and History: Covering books and digital resources across all fields of history review no. See Neale, Five Books. Retrieved 25 February What rot!
Retrieved 28 May Like Henry IV of France, she projected an image of herself which brought stability and prestige to her country.
By constant attention to the details of her total performance, she kept the rest of the cast on their toes and kept her own part as queen.
Croft, Willson, Martin's Press. Historical memorials of Westminster Abbey. London: John Murray. Some Victorian narratives, such as Raleigh laying his cloak before the queen or presenting her with a potato, remain part of the myth.
Dobson and Watson, Neale observed: "The book was written before such words as "ideological", "fifth column", and "cold war" became current; and it is perhaps as well that they are not there.
But the ideas are present, as is the idea of romantic leadership of a nation in peril, because they were present in Elizabethan times".
Starkey Elizabeth: Woman , 7. Black, J. Collinson, Patrick. Davenport, Cyril , Pollard, Alfred ed. Haigh, Christopher , Elizabeth I 2nd ed.
Hammer, P. Kantorowicz, Ernst Hartwig The king's two bodies: a study in mediaeval political theology 2 ed. Kenyon, John P. Neale, J. Rowse, A.
Strong, Roy C. Beem, Charles. New York: Viking Penguin. Hodges, J. Jones, Norman. Elizabeth I: The Shrewdness of Virtue.
Fromm International. Wernham, R. Before the Armada: the growth of English foreign policy, — , a standard history of foreign policy Primary sources and early histories Elizabeth I Elizabeth I: Collected Works.
University of Chicago Press. Susan M. Felch, ed. Wallace T. MacCaffrey ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, selected chapters, edition.
William Camden. Hypertext edition, with English translation. Dana F. Sutton ed. Retrieved 7 December Clapham, John. Elizabeth of England.
Read and Conyers Read eds. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Historiography and memory Carlson, Eric Josef.
Freeman, eds. The Myth of Elizabeth. Greaves, Richard L. Journal of Modern History. Montrose, Louis.
Watkins, John. Woolf, D. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Elizabeth I " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
Audio help. More spoken articles. Queen Elizabeth I. Chequers Ring Royal Gold Cup. Plimpton Sieve Portrait Armada Portrait Her public image also suffered in the last decade of her reign, when England was pressed by issues including scant harvests , unemployment , and economic inflation.
The adulation bestowed upon her both in her lifetime and in the ensuing centuries was not altogether a spontaneous effusion.
This political symbolism , common to monarchies, had more substance than usual, for the queen was by no means a mere figurehead.
While she did not wield the absolute power of which Renaissance rulers dreamed, she tenaciously upheld her authority to make critical decisions and to set the central policies of both state and church.
The latter half of the 16th century in England is justly called the Elizabethan Age: rarely has the collective life of a whole era been given so distinctively personal a stamp.
Henry had defied the pope and broken England from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church in order to dissolve his marriage with his first wife, Catherine of Aragon , who had borne him a daughter, Mary.
Before Elizabeth reached her third birthday, her father had her mother beheaded on charges of adultery and treason. Apparently, the king was undeterred by the logical inconsistency of simultaneously invalidating the marriage and accusing his wife of adultery.
The emotional impact of these events on the little girl, who had been brought up from infancy in a separate household at Hatfield, is not known; presumably, no one thought it worth recording.
What was noted was her precocious seriousness; at six years old, it was admiringly observed, she had as much gravity as if she had been Despite his capacity for monstrous cruelty, Henry VIII treated all his children with what contemporaries regarded as affection; Elizabeth was present at ceremonial occasions and was declared third in line to the throne.
Under a series of distinguished tutors, of whom the best known is the Cambridge humanist Roger Ascham , Elizabeth received the rigorous education normally reserved for male heirs, consisting of a course of studies centring on classical languages, history, rhetoric , and moral philosophy.
Thus steeped in the secular learning of the Renaissance, the quick-witted and intellectually serious princess also studied theology, imbibing the tenets of English Protestantism in its formative period.
Her guardian, the dowager queen Catherine Parr, almost immediately married Thomas Seymour , the lord high admiral. In January , shortly after the death of Catherine Parr, Thomas Seymour was arrested for treason and accused of plotting to marry Elizabeth in order to rule the kingdom.
Repeated interrogations of Elizabeth and her servants led to the charge that even when his wife was alive Seymour had on several occasions behaved in a flirtatious and overly familiar manner toward the young princess.
Under humiliating close questioning and in some danger, Elizabeth was extraordinarily circumspect and poised.
When she was told that Seymour had been beheaded, she betrayed no emotion. This attempt, along with her unpopular marriage to the ardently Catholic king Philip II of Spain , aroused bitter Protestant opposition.
For though, as her sister demanded, she conformed outwardly to official Catholic observance, she inevitably became the focus and the obvious beneficiary of plots to overthrow the government and restore Protestantism.
Two months later, after extensive interrogation and spying had revealed no conclusive evidence of treason on her part, she was released from the Tower and placed in close custody for a year at Woodstock.
Elizabeth and Mary were declared to be illegitimate as their father sought to pave the way to the throne for Edward, his male heir.
The girls were later reinstated as potential heirs. Edward VI died just six years later, in Mary Tudor and their cousin, Lady Jane Grey , both were in line for the crown.
Edward had appointed Grey to be his successor. Her reign proved to be very short: Mary gained the support of the English people and unseated Grey after only nine days on the throne.
Even though Elizabeth supported Mary in her coup, she was not free from suspicion. A staunch Roman Catholic, Mary sought to restore her country back to her faith, undoing her father's break from the Pope.
While Elizabeth went along with the religious change, she remained a candidate for the throne for those who wanted a return to Protestantism.
In , Thomas Wyatt organized a rebellion against Mary in the hopes of making Elizabeth queen and restoring Protestantism to England.
His plot was uncovered, and Mary quickly imprisoned Elizabeth. Although Elizabeth disputed any involvement in the conspiracy, her sister was not wholly convinced.
Although she was soon released, Elizabeth's life was firmly in her sister's hands. Wyatt was executed, but he maintained that Elizabeth was not aware of the rebellion.
Elizabeth eventually returned to Hatfield and continued with her studies. Elizabeth I inherited a number of problems stirred up by her half-sister Mary.
The country was at war with France, which proved to be a tremendous drain on the royal coffers. There was also great tension between different religious factions after Mary worked to restore England to Roman Catholicism by any means necessary.
Mary had earned herself the nickname Bloody Mary for ordering the execution of Protestants as heretics.
Elizabeth acted swiftly to address these two pressing issues. During her first session of Parliament in , she called for the passage of the Act of Supremacy, which re-established the Church of England, and the Act of Uniformity, which created a common prayer book.
Elizabeth took a moderate approach to the divisive religious conflict in her country. She was able to avoid clashing with the other superpower of the age, Spain, for much of her reign.
In , however, Elizabeth entered the fray to support the Protestant rebellion against Spain in the Netherlands. Spain then set its sights on England, but the English navy was able to defeat the infamous Spanish Armada in According to several reports, the weather proved to be a deciding factor in England's victory.
While she worked hard at court, Elizabeth took time for leisurely pursuits. She loved music and could play the lute.
Thomas Tallis and William Byrd were among her court musicians. Elizabeth also enjoyed dancing and watching plays.
Elizabeth's reign supported the creation of works by such greats as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe. Writers paid tribute to the queen in many literary forms.
Elizabeth I VideoElizabeth I Episode 2 The Enemy Within
The image of Elizabeth's reign is one of triumph and success. Investing in expensive clothes and jewellery to look the part, like all contemporary sovereigns , she cultivated this image by touring the country in regional visits known as 'progresses', often riding on horseback rather than by carriage.
Elizabeth made at least 25 progresses during her reign. However, Elizabeth's reign was one of considerable danger and difficulty for many, with threats of invasion from Spain through Ireland, and from France through Scotland.
Much of northern England was in rebellion in A papal bull of specifically released Elizabeth's subjects from their allegiance, and she passed harsh laws against Roman Catholics after plots against her life were discovered.
One such plot involved Mary, Queen of Scots, who had fled to England in after her second husband, Henry, Lord Darnley's, murder and her subsequent marriage to a man believed to have been involved in his murder, James, Earl of Bothwell..
As a likely successor to Elizabeth, Mary spent 19 years as Elizabeth's prisoner because Mary was the focus for rebellion and possible assassination plots, such as the Babington Plot of Mary was also a temptation for potential invaders such as Philip II.
In a letter of to Mary, Elizabeth wrote, 'You have planned I never proceeded so harshly against you. In , aided by bad weather, the English navy scored a great victory over the Spanish invasion fleet of around ships - the 'Armada'.
During Elizabeth's long reign, the nation also suffered from high prices and severe economic depression, especially in the countryside, during the s.
The war against Spain was not very successful after the Armada had been beaten and, together with other campaigns, it was very costly.
Though she kept a tight rein on government expenditure, Elizabeth left large debts to her successor. Despite the combination of financial strains and prolonged war after , Parliament was not summoned more often.
There were only 16 sittings of the Commons during Elizabeth's reign, five of which were in the period Although Elizabeth freely used her power to veto legislation, she avoided confrontation and did not attempt to define Parliament's constitutional position and rights.
Elizabeth chose never to marry. If she had chosen a foreign prince, he would have drawn England into foreign policies for his own advantages as in her sister Mary's marriage to Philip of Spain ; marrying a fellow countryman could have drawn the Queen into factional infighting.
Elizabeth used her marriage prospects as a political tool in foreign and domestic policies. However, the 'Virgin Queen' was presented as a selfless woman who sacrificed personal happiness for the good of the nation, to which she was, in essence, 'married'.
Late in her reign, she addressed Parliament in the so-called 'Golden Speech' of when she told MPs: 'There is no jewel, be it of never so high a price, which I set before this jewel; I mean your love.
Overall, Elizabeth's always shrewd and, when necessary, decisive leadership brought successes during a period of great danger both at home and abroad.
She died at Richmond Palace on 24 March , having become a legend in her lifetime. The date of her accession was a national holiday for two hundred years.
James, Westminster between and Skip to main content. Share this article:. Related content. Her half-brother, Edward VI , ruled until his death in , bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, the Roman Catholic Mary and the younger Elizabeth, in spite of statute law to the contrary.
Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Mary's reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels.
In upon Mary's death, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel.
One of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the supreme governor.
It was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir; however, despite numerous courtships, she never did.
She was eventually succeeded by her first cousin twice removed, James VI of Scotland , laying the foundation for the Kingdom of Great Britain.
She had earlier been responsible for the imprisonment and execution of James's mother, Mary, Queen of Scots.
In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. After the pope declared her illegitimate in and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life, all of which were defeated with the help of her ministers' secret service.
Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the major powers of France and Spain. She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands , France, and Ireland.
By the mids, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. England's victory against the Spanish Armada in associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history.
As she grew older, Elizabeth became celebrated for her virginity. A cult grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, and literature of the day.
Elizabeth's reign became known as the Elizabethan era. The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama , led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe , and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake.
Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler,  who enjoyed more than her share of luck.
Towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity. Elizabeth is acknowledged as a charismatic performer and a dogged survivor in an era when government was ramshackle and limited, and when monarchs in neighbouring countries faced internal problems that jeopardised their thrones.
After the short reigns of her half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity.
Her mother was Henry's second wife, Anne Boleyn. At birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England. Her older half-sister, Mary , had lost her position as a legitimate heir when Henry annulled his marriage to Mary's mother, Catherine of Aragon , to marry Anne, with the intent to sire a male heir and ensure the Tudor succession.
Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May ,  four months after Catherine of Aragon's death from natural causes.
Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the royal succession. From his birth, Edward was undisputed heir apparent to the throne.
Elizabeth was placed in his household and carried the chrisom , or baptismal cloth, at his christening. Elizabeth's first governess , Margaret Bryan , wrote that she was "as toward a child and as gentle of conditions as ever I knew any in my life".
Under Grindal, a talented and skilful tutor, she also progressed in French and Greek. After Grindal died in , Elizabeth received her education under the tutor of Prince Edward, Roger Ascham , a sympathetic teacher who believed that learning should be engaging.
The Venetian ambassador stated in that she "possessed [these] languages so thoroughly that each appeared to be her native tongue".
The couple took Elizabeth into their household at Chelsea. There Elizabeth experienced an emotional crisis that some historians believe affected her for the rest of her life.
Elizabeth rose early and surrounded herself with maids to avoid his unwelcome morning visits. Parr, rather than confront her husband over his inappropriate activities, joined in.
Twice she accompanied him in tickling Elizabeth, and once held her while he cut her black gown "into a thousand pieces".
However, Thomas Seymour continued scheming to control the royal family and tried to have himself appointed the governor of the King's person.
She tried to convince Elizabeth to write to Thomas and "comfort him in his sorrow",  but Elizabeth claimed that Thomas was not so saddened by her stepmother's death as to need comfort.
Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House , would admit nothing. Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt , who reported, "I do see it in her face that she is guilty".
Edward VI died on 6 July , aged Jane was proclaimed queen by the privy council , but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed after nine days.
On 3 August , Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side. The show of solidarity between the sisters did not last long.
Mary, a devout Catholic, was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Catholic Mass; Elizabeth had to outwardly conform.
Mary's initial popularity ebbed away in when she announced plans to marry Philip of Spain , the son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and an active Catholic.
In January and February , Wyatt's rebellion broke out; it was soon suppressed. Elizabeth fervently protested her innocence. Mary's closest confidant, Charles V's ambassador Simon Renard , argued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner , worked to have Elizabeth put on trial.
Instead, on 22 May, Elizabeth was moved from the Tower to Woodstock , where she was to spend almost a year under house arrest in the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield.
Crowds cheered her all along the way. On 17 April , Elizabeth was recalled to court to attend the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy.
If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply.
When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child.
King Philip, who ascended the Spanish throne in , acknowledged the new political reality and cultivated his sister-in-law.
She was a better ally than the chief alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots , who had grown up in France and was betrothed to the Dauphin of France.
By October , Elizabeth was already making plans for her government. On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir. Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and declared her intentions to her council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance.
The speech contains the first record of her adoption of the medieval political theology of the sovereign's "two bodies": the body natural and the body politic : .
My lords, the law of nature moves me to sorrow for my sister; the burden that is fallen upon me makes me amazed, and yet, considering I am God's creature, ordained to obey His appointment, I will thereto yield, desiring from the bottom of my heart that I may have assistance of His grace to be the minister of His heavenly will in this office now committed to me.
And as I am but one body naturally considered, though by His permission a body politic to govern, so shall I desire you all I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.
As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony , she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour.
Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished". She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.
Elizabeth's personal religious convictions have been much debated by scholars. She was a Protestant, but kept Catholic symbols such as the crucifix , and downplayed the role of sermons in defiance of a key Protestant belief.
In terms of public policy she favoured pragmatism in dealing with religious matters. The question of her legitimacy was a key concern: although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and Catholic law, her retroactively-declared illegitimacy under the English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was.
For this reason alone, it was never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace Protestantism. Elizabeth and her advisers perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade against heretical England.
Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching reforms.
The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords , particularly from the bishops.
Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury.
Nevertheless, Elizabeth was forced to accept the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England rather than the more contentious title of Supreme Head , which many thought unacceptable for a woman to bear.
The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May All public officials were to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as the supreme governor or risk disqualification from office; the heresy laws were repealed, to avoid a repeat of the persecution of dissenters practised by Mary.
At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the Book of Common Prayer compulsory, though the penalties for recusancy , or failure to attend and conform, were not extreme.
From the start of Elizabeth's reign, it was expected that she would marry and the question arose to whom. Although she received many offers for her hand, she never married and was childless; the reasons for this are not clear.
Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships. Her last courtship was with Francis, Duke of Anjou , 22 years her junior.
While risking possible loss of power like her sister, who played into the hands of King Philip II of Spain , marriage offered the chance of an heir.
In the spring of , it became evident that Elizabeth was in love with her childhood friend Robert Dudley. However, William Cecil, Nicholas Throckmorton , and some conservative peers made their disapproval unmistakably clear.
Among other marriage candidates being considered for the queen, Robert Dudley continued to be regarded as a possible candidate for nearly another decade.
He finally remarried in , to which the queen reacted with repeated scenes of displeasure and lifelong hatred towards his wife, Lettice Knollys.
After Elizabeth's own death, a note from him was found among her most personal belongings, marked "his last letter" in her handwriting.
Marriage negotiations constituted a key element in Elizabeth's foreign policy. By , relations with the Habsburgs had deteriorated.
In , Elizabeth told an imperial envoy: "If I follow the inclination of my nature, it is this: beggar-woman and single, far rather than queen and married".
Members urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death. She refused to do either.
In April she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in I will never break the word of a prince spoken in public place, for my honour's sake.
And therefore I say again, I will marry as soon as I can conveniently, if God take not him away with whom I mind to marry, or myself, or else some other great let happen.
By , senior figures in the government privately accepted that Elizabeth would never marry or name a successor.
William Cecil was already seeking solutions to the succession problem. Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity related to that of the Virgin Mary.
In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman. Ultimately, Elizabeth would insist she was married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection.
In , she spoke of "all my husbands, my good people". Elizabeth's first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there.
Mary boasted being "the nearest kinswoman she hath". In Elizabeth proposed her own suitor, Robert Dudley, as a husband for Mary, without asking either of the two people concerned.
Both proved unenthusiastic,  and in Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley , who carried his own claim to the English throne.
The marriage was the first of a series of errors of judgement by Mary that handed the victory to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth.
Darnley quickly became unpopular and was murdered in February by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell.
Shortly afterwards, on 15 May , Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband.
Elizabeth confronted Mary about the marriage, writing to her:. How could a worse choice be made for your honour than in such haste to marry such a subject, who besides other and notorious lacks, public fame has charged with the murder of your late husband, besides the touching of yourself also in some part, though we trust in that behalf falsely.
These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle. The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James VI , who had been born in June James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant.
Mary escaped from Loch Leven in but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth.
Elizabeth's first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe. Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England, where she was imprisoned for the next nineteen years.
Mary was soon the focus for rebellion. In there was a major Catholic rising in the North ; the goal was to free Mary, marry her to Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk , and put her on the English throne.
Regnans in Excelsis gave English Catholics a strong incentive to look to Mary Stuart as the legitimate sovereign of England.
Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of which caused Mary's suitor, the Duke of Norfolk, to lose his head to the Babington Plot of , Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.
By late , she had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot.
The sincerity of Elizabeth's remorse and whether or not she wanted to delay the warrant have been called into question both by her contemporaries and later historians.
Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive. The exception was the English occupation of Le Havre from October to June , which ended in failure when Elizabeth's Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port.
An element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over whom the queen had little control. After the occupation and loss of Le Havre in —, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until , when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II.
It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong, and exposed England to invasion.
The outcome was the Treaty of Nonsuch of August , in which Elizabeth promised military support to the Dutch.
The expedition was led by her former suitor, the Earl of Leicester. Elizabeth from the start did not really back this course of action.
Her strategy, to support the Dutch on the surface with an English army, while beginning secret peace talks with Spain within days of Leicester's arrival in Holland,  had necessarily to be at odds with Leicester's, who wanted and was expected by the Dutch to fight an active campaign.
Um die Wirksamkeit dieses Manövers zu testen, fragte sie einmal einen adeligen Gast aus Frankreich, was dieser von ihren Damen halte.
Er protestierte, dass es ihm nicht möglich sei, die Sterne zu bewerten, wenn die Sonne anwesend war. Dies war genau die Antwort, auf die Elizabeth spekuliert hatte.
Sie war schon immer auf ihr Aussehen bedacht, doch als sie älter wurde, sprengte das Ritual, die Königin anzukleiden und zu schminken, jeden Rahmen.
Um ihr Alter zu verbergen, trug Elizabeth Perücken in ihrer ursprünglichen roten Haarfarbe. Ihre Augen wurden schwarz umrahmt und ihre Lippen mit einer Mischung aus Bienenwachs und pflanzlicher Farbe rot gefärbt.
Mit jedem Jahr wurden mehr und mehr Schichten aufgetragen. Ironischerweise fügte dieses Make-up der Haut viel mehr Schaden zu als das Alter es je konnte.
Aber Elizabeth bestand auf der Verwendung dieser gefährlichen Kosmetik, und nur ihre vertrautesten Hofdamen durften sehen, was sich unter dem Make-up verbarg.
Sogar Doctor Who traf gleich mehrfach auf Elizabeth I. Ich mag Elizabeth weil ohne ihre fortschrittliche Denkweise wäre England heute nicht was es jetzt ist.
Ich finde es auch gut dass sie sich nie von Männern hat rumkomandieren hat lassen. Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht.